Thursday, March 20, 2014

Basic architecture of computer

Basic architecture of computer:
      Computer systems are made up of set of functional devices that are connected to each other systematically. the system's architecture are data and instructions which stored in the same memory  and a single processor is used. Thus, the data/intructions are processed one-by-one.
     The basic architecture of computer can easily be described by a logical figure that was developed by Von Neumann and the figure can also be called as 'Von Neumann's architecture.


Description of CPU with its parts:
         CPU stands for Central Processing Unit and can also be known as microprocessor. It is the heart of computer system. CPU is the core of computer system that controls rest of the computer sytstems, including input and output devices, secondary or backing storage and main memory called RAM. 
the two parts of CPU is ALU i.e. Arithematic and Logical Unit and CU i.e. Control Unit.
ALU- it carries out the arithematical and logical operations like- multiplication, addition and negation of integers.
        CU- it controls the flow of data and/or instructions from the input device. It also converts the recieved instructions (that are in the form of program) to control signals. it manages the data/instructions that are contained in the program.

From the above figure (i.e.fig.1) we can know how the CPU works. 
        The brief description of the above diagram showing the work of CPU is mentioned below:
- First of all, the CU (Control Unit) receives input (i.e. data / instructions) from the input devices then, stores them into the RAM.
-The CU controls/manages the flow of data and/or instructions inside the computer system.
- After that, the CU checks the input that has been stored in the Ram to see whetherany comparison or calculations are needed or not for processing the data.
- If any calculations or comparisons are needed then, the CU sends those data to the ALU (Arithematic Logic Unit).
- After the operation is done in the ALU, the CU retrieve the results from it and then stores them into the main memory i.e.RAM.
- The RAM stores the data and information temporarily during the processing is being carried out by CPU.
- When the processing is finished , the CU retrieves the required result from RAM and send to an output device so that we can see them.
- ON an output device, the user can see the output temporarily while it is being stored in the RAM.
- If users needed to store it permanently for the future references then, they give instructions to store the output to an external storage device permanently.

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